The Biafra War  -  Nigeria Biafra Civil War

Biafra War

Ojukwu in Military Meeting

 

Ikemba Ojukwu 2

Aburi Talks to Avert Nigeria Biafra War

Aburi Talks to Avert Nigeria Biafra Civil War

In Attendance:
Lt.-General Joe Ankrah of Ghana (Host) Lt.-Colonel Yakubu Gowon, Chief of Army Staff of Nigeria (announced as 'Supreme Commander' while whereabouts of Ironsi was 'unknown') Lt.-Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, Military Governor of Eastern Nigeria Colonel Robert Adeyinka Adebayo, Military Governor of Western Nigeria Lt.-Colonel Hassan Katsina, Military Governor of Northern Nigeria Lt.-Colonel David Ejoor, Military Governor of Mid-Western Nigeria Major Mobolaji Johnson, Military Governor of Lagos Alhaji Kam Selem, Deputy Inspector-General of Police Mr. T. Omo-Bare Commodore Akinwale Wey, Chief of Naval Staff

The Main Topic: Re-Organizing Nigeria

Attitudes at Aburi

a. How the military looks at the politicians

General Ankrah (Ghana): I will not like to dwell rigidly on any point whatsoever because I feel this is a domestic affair of Nigeria and, as I have always said, it is not difficult for military people to understand each other. It is a saying that if Generals were to meet and discuss frontiers, wars or even go into the details to forestall war, there will never be any differences or discrepancies but unity and understanding. There will be no war because the two old boys will meet at the frontier and tell each other: 'Old boy, we are not going to commit our boys to die, come on, let us keep the politicians out' and that is the end. I am quite confident that having met here to-day, you will continue and achieve what you are here for.....
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Ojukwu during Biafran War

Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu's Press Conference On Aburi Meeting 1967

You are already aware that we have just ended the meeting of the Supreme Military Council in Ghana. It has come to my notice that the public is anxious to have more details of decisions taken.

The meeting opened with a joint declaration by all of us, the military leaders, renouncing the use of force as a means of settling the present crisis in Nigeria and holding ourselves in honor bound by that declaration. That declaration also reaffirmed our faith in discussions and negotiations as the peaceful means of resolving the Nigerian crisis. having regard to the great fear and suspicion on all parts about the use of force, we thought that this declaration should precede any other business; and I am sure that all Nigerians will welcome it as a source of great relief.

The next important matter discussed, and upon which a lot of other things hinged, was the organization of the Nigerian army. Let me say here that our discussions right through went on in a calm atmosphere, understanding, and realism. We in the East have always felt that realism and understanding were lacking in the past in the approach to our problems, and it was very encouraging that our meetings on the two days showed the sincere determination by all to find realistic solutions to our problems.

it was agreed that the army will be henceforth be governed by the Supreme Military Council, the chairman of which will be known as Commander-in-Chief and Head of the Federal Military Government. There is to be a military headquarters on which the regions will be equally represented and which will be headed by a Chief of Staff. There shall be an area command in each region under the charge of an area command in each region under the charge of an area commander -- the regions corresponding to the existing ones. There will be a Lagos garrison, which will include Ikeja. For the duration of the military government, military governors will have control over their area commands in matters of internal security. All matters of policy, shall be dealt with by the Supreme Military Council. Any decision affecting the whole country must be determined by the Supreme Military Council, and when a meeting is not possible, such a matter must be referred to the military governors for comments and concurrence.

Subject to the above arrangements, we felt that the existing governmental institutions, namely, the Supreme Military Council and the Federal Executive Council, as well as regional executive councils, are workable and should be retained.

It was agreed that the Supreme Military Council must collectively approve appointments to the following offices: a) diplomatic consular posts; b) senior posts in the armed forces and the police; c) superscale federal corporation posts.

This particular decision was made as a means of removing friction, it being our unfortunate experience that friction and misunderstanding had in the past bedeviled these appointments. What it means is that no one person will have the right and power to make these appointments alone in the future.

Politically, it was unanimously agreed that it was in the interest of the safety of this nation that the regions should move slightly further apart than before. As a prelude to this, it was decided that all decrees and parts of decrees promulgated since the military regime, and which detracted from the previous powers of the regional governments, should be repealed by the twenty-first of this month. Once this is done and the agreements are implemented, the aim of allowing the regions to operate more independently and of ensuring fairness to all will be achieved.

The question of displaced persons was exhaustively discussed. As regards civil servants and employees of government corporations who had to flee their places of work as a result of the current situation, it was decided that such people will be paid their full salaries up to the end of March this year, unless they have found alternative employment.

On the question of other displaced persons, it was decided to set up a committee to look into the problems of rehabilitation and recovery of property. I took that opportunity to repeat my assurance that those non easterners who had to be ordered to leave the region in the interest of their own safety would be welcomed back as soon as conditions become more normal.

I have hurried to make this statement to you because of the misgivings which I understand are prevalent in the region as a result of this meeting. I recall that just before my departure, when the public did not even know that our meeting was so close, students and other groups of individuals issued resolutions advising me against attending any meeting with my counterparts. You will now be convinced that this meeting was more than necessary and worthwhile. Our duty is to reduce or remove tension, in order to leave ourselves free to tackle the most urgent and constructive tasks of economic and social development, which cannot be possible in a state of tension and fear. I have no doubt that all of us who participated in the last discussions are determined to implement the agreements reached. Once this is done, we shall have gone a long way to relieving tension and banishing fear among us. It is our plan to meet again soon, this time in Nigeria, to consider other matters arising from our last discussions and those which were not touched.

I want here to place on record my personal indebtedness to the government and people of Ghana for making a plane available to convey me to and from the meetings on the two days, and for making other arrangements to make this meeting possible. Provided our aims are achieved, we in this country will have cause to remain eternally grateful to Ghana for their constructive initiative.

For our part in this country, we must keep calm and avoid actions or words which might create difficulties for our progress in the solution of our problems.

God will certainly rescue this nation from collapse and perdition.
January 6, 1967 - Government House, Enugu, Eastern Region.

Ikemba Ojukwu 3

 

Ikemba Ojukwu 4

 

Biafra War Began
Beginning of Biafra Nigeria Civil War

 

Biafra Journey

 

General Ojukwu and Biafra Army
Lt.-Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu organising Biafra Army

Lt.-Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu
Lt.-Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu showing Biafra army which route to take

 

Biafra war photo

 

Gowon with War Chart

 

Biafran Army
Some foreigners who visited Biafran soldiers

 

Biafran Women Soldiers
Biafra women soldiers

 

The Biafra 10

 

Biafra Bomb Victims (Ukpaka Reports)
Nigeria army jet bombed Biafra civilians with chemical bombs

 

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Biafran Children 4
A man carrying a dead child believed to be a relation

 

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Biafran Soldiers 1

 

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Biafra Soldier at the war front

 

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Victims of Nigerian Pogroms 1966 Tell Their Own Story

Lt. Col. C. Odumegwu Ojukwu
Lt. Col. C. Odumegwu Ojukwu - The Military Governor of Eastern Nigeria

FOREWORD

The full story of the organised and brutal massacre – Pogrom – of Eastern Nigerians in Northern Nigeria and elsewhere will never be told in our life time. It is an impossible task to recapture in print or even in pictures the cruel fate and agencies of more than 7,000 ordinary men, women and children of Eastern Nigeria origin who were murdered in cold blood by Northern hordes in army uniform.

These gruesome murders and other acts of barbarism – the wanton destruction of lives and property – read like a story from the Dark Ages. But they have happened in this our twentieth century.

This booklet is merely designed to provide general information on the Pogrom. We are not asking for pity or sympathy. Indeed, we are braced to face and conquer the challenge of the future. We believe that the tomorrow we face or the battle for survival will not be won by bullets or by savagery but by brain power, modern skills and the determination to live and succeed. We also believe that out of the carnage and wrecks of the past will emerge a new breed of men and women; resolute, powerful and prosperous.

1966 Igbo Massacre

The following are reports by a few of the victims of the September/October 1966 pogroms perpetrated by Northern Nigerians against Easterners. 30,000 people were killed during these pogroms, thousand badly mutilated, and 2 million fled back to the Eastern Region of Nigeria.

MR. J. P. ONANI, a native of Obubra, who had worked in Kano as a clerk for three and half years, says:

“On the 1st of October, at about 6.30 p.m., I was in my house, I heard shooting and so many people shouting in some parts of the streets. As I came out I learnt from a friend that the Nigerian Army and Police were shooting to frighten the Northern civilians but soon after the shooting spread all over the town. I took my family and we ran from our house into a gutter. As we were in the gutter they broke into the house and looted all my belongings. We managed to escape again from the gutter into the bush where we slept for three days because they now entered the gutter and started killing those who escaped from their houses. We saw so many dead bodies lying in the streets as we were running. At the Railway station over 200 people who ran from the town to hide and wait for the Eastern train were killed including Railway workers of Eastern origin.

“After three days when shooting was stopped I took my family along and begged the Manager of the Bank who employed me to allow me to stay with him for one day. He allowed me into his boys’ quarters. I then had information about the Red Cross Society and rushed to their office. We were conveyed in a Police van to the airport where we were flown from Kano to Ikeja in Lagos on Friday 7th October, and two days later we were flown to Enugu.”

MRS. CHARITY NWOSU, of Ibeku, Bende Division, wife of a trader at Jos, narrates:

“About 1 a.m. on Wednesday, 28th September, 1966, I was awakened by a violent stampede and shrill cries that rent the night. On an impulse I opened a window that over-looks my husband’s store. Just across the street I saw a lorry and a crowd of people in front of the store. I knew that all was not well and my mind went immediately to my husband who was sleeping in the store as usual for security reasons. Within seconds the store was forced open and looted and Victor (her husband) was hacked to death. What immediately followed I cannot tell because my mind went blank. That the gang did not descend on me and my children immediately was perhaps an act of God’s grace but I do remember when I regained my senses  that I and my children were hiding under a bed in the room of one of the inmates of the house who was a native of the town. In the morning the rioters came back in search of us and when they did not find us in our room they looted our household property, destroying everything. We remained hidden under the bed for two days. On Friday, 30th September, our host lodged a report with the Nigerian Police who later came and conveyed us to the Jos Police Station.”

Injured People During the 1966 Pogroms

MR. U. U. UKUT of Ikot Ekpene, says:

“I first went up North to Kaduna in 1957 and got the Posts and Telegraphs job this year. On 29th September, at about 3 p.m., I was returning from work when I beheld the horrible sight of a man drenched with petrol and burnt alive at the Ahmadu Bello Way. As I turned into Yoruba Road I saw an Easterner abandon his Honda motor cycle while he was hotly pursued by the mob. As the man was about to run into a Police Station I saw the policeman push him out. He was killed by the pursuing mob right in front of the Police Station. I ran towards my house but when I found it surrounded by the mob I took shelter in the house of a Yoruba neighbour.

“I hid there till the following morning when I managed to reach the Posts and Telegraphs office. I sheltered in the office for about four days and then the Posts and Telegraphs succeeded in getting us into a train bound for Enugu on 5th October. At Makurdi we were held up in the middle of Makurdi Bridge by armed soldiers. I did not come out and so did not know what transpired there.

“At Makurdi South we collected about 28 for the Yoruba engine driver because he had refused to drive us any further. At Oturkpo station (Northern Nigeria) some armed soldiers again stopped us and called out a band of Tiv people. These Tivs started to loot the wagons and damaged what they could not take away including two cars. The armed soldiers finally proceeded to attack passengers. They killed three girls from Kano who stepped out of the train, wounded several passengers and also killed one man, cutting away his head and dumping his headless body into the train.”

MR. PHILIP AJAYI, who hails from Ikot Ekpene and was a clerk at the Nigeria Airways, Kano, tells the following story:

“On 1st October, at about 6.30 p.m. I went to take something from my office at the Airport because I was not to be on duty till 10 p.m. that night. I returned to my house at about 6.50 p.m. I was in the house when a Northerner, a colleague of my wife at the U.T.C. Stores, called and informed us that there was some shooting at the Airport. My wife telephoned from a nearby lawyer’s house and obtained information that the Airport was littered with dead bodies.

“Since the 29th July Army mutiny, a unit of about ten soldiers has always been stationed at the Airport everyday but when I went there on 1st October, I noticed that there was a large number of soldiers instead of the usual ten men. When my wife got the news of the shootings at the Airport I decided not to go to work that night. After some time very many armed soldiers invaded the Sabon Gari. They went from house to house and shot everybody they saw.

“My wife is great with child, as you see, and as I could not leave her and she could not move about freely we knelt down and prayed and then waited for death. But miraculously the soldiers passed without entering our house. After the soldiers had finished the killing, armed bands of civilians moved in. They went from house to house taking away anything they liked but in addition to looting people’s property, the armed mob also killed off anybody who escaped the slaughter of the soldiers. This time my wife and I took shelter with some Yoruba neighbours. The Yoruba neighbours dressed my wife and me in Yoruba dresses and when the mob came they took us all as Yorubas.

“The Nigerian Airways provided a plane on Friday, 7th October and flew its staff to Lagos from where those of us from the East were flown to Enugu on the 8th.”

MR. PHILIP AJAYI, who hails from Ikot Ekpene and was a clerk at the Nigeria Airways, Kano, tells the following story:

“On 1st October, at about 6.30 p.m. I went to take something from my office at the Airport because I was not to be on duty till 10 p.m. that night. I returned to my house at about 6.50 p.m. I was in the house when a Northerner, a colleague of my wife at the U.T.C. Stores, called and informed us that there was some shooting at the Airport. My wife telephoned from a nearby lawyer’s house and obtained information that the Airport was littered with dead bodies.

“Since the 29th July Army mutiny, a unit of about ten soldiers has always been stationed at the Airport everyday but when I went there on 1st October, I noticed that there was a large number of soldiers instead of the usual ten men. When my wife got the news of the shootings at the Airport I decided not to go to work that night. After some time very many armed soldiers invaded the Sabon Gari. They went from house to house and shot everybody they saw.

“My wife is great with child, as you see, and as I could not leave her and she could not move about freely we knelt down and prayed and then waited for death. But miraculously the soldiers passed without entering our house. After the soldiers had finished the killing, armed bands of civilians moved in. They went from house to house taking away anything they liked but in addition to looting people’s property, the armed mob also killed off anybody who escaped the slaughter of the soldiers. This time my wife and I took shelter with some Yoruba neighbours. The Yoruba neighbours dressed my wife and me in Yoruba dresses and when the mob came they took us all as Yorubas.

“The Nigerian Airways provided a plane on Friday, 7th October and flew its staff to Lagos from where those of us from the East were flown to Enugu on the 8th.”

MR. ISAAC A OGBONNAYA of Arochukwu was catering clerk at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria: he narrates:

“On 8th September, Mr. I. E. Ubani, an Umuahia man, and clerk in the Ministry of Agriculture informed me and one Yoruba man that “operation No. 3 to finish the Easterners” would be carried out on 28th September. On 25th September one policeman at Nigeria Police post, Samaru, Zaria, also told me that it was premature for us to cry for the Easterners killed at Kaduna. He said this was because of the killings would be extended to Zaria before the end of the month. I did not attach much importance to these two warnings because of the repeated assurances given by Lt. Col. Gowon following the July incident that our lives and property were now safe. However, some of us workers took some of our property to the railway station to be carried to Enugu just in case. At mid-night of 28th September I heard a big and continuous noise at the Agriculture quarters about one-quarter of a mile away. I then woke up my inmates Mr. Asuquo Ogwa, Mr. Okon Edem Udo and Mr. Udo Okon.

“Observing that our lives were in danger we escaped into the nearby bush. Under cover of the bush we could see a mob break open the house of Mr. Ezima and his brother both of whom came from Umuahia (Eastern Nigeria) and drag their bodies out after killing them. Then at about 2 a.m. one of the roving mobs spotted us and gave chase. We all ran down to the river valley nearby where the grass was so thick that we escaped our chasers. There we parted and I hid myself inside a culvert.

“At 7 a.m. the following day, Thursday, I came out when I saw some policemen passing. I decided to go back to my house to see if I could get any of my things. On my way to my house one fellow worker, Mr. Stephen Onuoha, a native of Okigwi (Eastern Nigeria) saw me and started to hail at me. His calls attracted the attention of a group of Northerners working at a building site. They chased and caught him and beat him to death with hammers and sticks. When they killed him they carried away his portmanteau. Then they turned and chased me but being already far from them I was able to out-run them.

“As I ran towards the senior service quarters in the campus I met Mr. J. O. Arukwe of Arochukwu (Eastern Nigeria) and Mr. Philips of Asaba (Mid-Western Nigeria Ibo), both of them Executive Officers in the University. Both were driving in their cars to work. I stopped them and warned them that there were violent disturbances in the campus. They reversed their cars and drove back to their quarters. I ran up the house of a Yoruba lecturer and took shelter.

“As the lecturer lives near Mr. Arukwe and Mr. Philips I was able to see Mr. Arukwe join Mr. Philips in the latter’s house. I also later witnessed an attack on Mr. Philips’ house and I saw Mr. Arukwe dragged out dead from the house. Later I was informed by Professor Darling that Mr. Philips too was killed in the house.

“While I was in the Yoruba lecturer’s house, his wife telephoned the Assistant Registrar, Mr. Reedy, to come and take me to safety because my presence there was dangerous to both myself and their family. As I entered the car of Mr. Reedy the mob saw me and attacked the car with a hail of stones. The Assistant Registrar, however, managed to take me to the general office which served as a depot for escaped Easterners in the University. There I learnt from one Ibibio man that several Easterners were burnt to death when the mob set fire to the house where they were hiding in the ceiling.

“At about 2 p.m. that Thursday the Eastern Nigerians comprising under-graduates at the University, students of the Federal School of Aviation, Zaria, and workers were all conveyed in University buses to the prisons where we stayed till Friday; then we were conveyed in convoys to the railway station. There we discovered that the loads that we had considered railed to Enugu about a week earlier had all been stolen. We also saw many dead bodies being removed from the railway station.

“We left Zaria at 5 p.m. that Friday. We were help up at the middle of Makurdi bridge for about four hours by armed soldiers and we were allowed to go on only after paying a ransom of 120 in cash in addition to giving out all the property demanded by the soldiers. Again at Oturkpo we were held up for about three hours by armed soldiers and we paid 82 in cash in addition to their plundering such of our belongings as we left. The soldiers at Oturkpo were so happy that they fired some salvos in salute to us as our train moved away. During the rest of the journey to Enugu we were showered with missiles of stones as we passed some minor stations.”

Degema General Hospital

MR. NGERIBIA lies at the Degema General Hospital with a fractured leg and stab wounds all over his body. His story is as follows:

“The frequent molestation of Easterners in different parts of the North gave cause for alarm in Bukuru. Many Easterners decided to quit and move bag and baggage to the Bukuru Railway Station on 16th September. There were no trains and the people reluctant to return to the town decided to sit it out at the Station. Very early in the morning on Friday 30th September we were attacked by armed soldiers and civilians. There was confusion all over the place and by day-break more than fifty people lay dead. In the morning, Native Authority lorries tried to evacuate all of us but the attackers stormed in again and the heavily packed lorries were riddled with bullets.

“Several men, women and children fell dead. I was not quite lucky this time. My right leg was fractured and I had stab wounds on my forehead and body; as I tried to crawl a heavy blow fell on my back (I did not know what it was) and I lay unconscious. When I recovered consciousness, I found myself in a pool of blood and naked. I was later conveyed to the General Hospital, Jos for emergency treatment. I think it was the Red Cross which provided us with clothing. We were taken to the Jos Airport where we boarded a chartered plane that brought us to Port Harcourt from where I was transferred to this Hospital.”

MATHIAS ANYAOGU narrates:

“I was a staff of the Fire Brigade attached to the Local Office in Kano. On the 1st day of October, the day the Anniversary of our Independence was celebrated, I was on afternoon duty. When I got to the office, we continued working till 8.30 p.m. We heard gun-shots at the Railway Station. When we asked for the cause of the gun-shots we were told by some Hausas that the soldiers were shooting because the long-expected Sound-bound train had arrived. Just then some eight armed soldiers came to our Office in Land Rover. One of them who was a sergeant ordered that all Easterners should raise up their hands. For fear none of us did. He continued asking that we raise up our hands. Since we had no other choice we reluctantly raised up our hands. There were about seven of us including an Ibo man who had run into our office for safety.

“The sergeant asked us whether we could remember what happened on the 15th of January when the Prime Minister and the Premier of the North lost their lives and the Ibos were all very happy. We said No, Sergeant. Paying no heed to that he asked us to give our names and addresses and send any messages we have for our people because we were going to die. John, a co-worker, took our names and addresses and we gave him the money we had intended sending home through those going by the South-bound train. We had this money with us because it was only the previous day that we received our monthly salary. Raymond Uwaezuoke gave 32, I gave 11 and many others gave theirs too. After collecting this money, they took us to their Land Rover and warned us that anyone who tried to jump out would be finished. They drove us five miles away to Katsina Road, brought us down and started shooting us. I felt my leg shattered and fell down.

“When they thought we were all dead they drove back to the town. After regaining consciousness, I looked around me and saw that all the people with me had died. I managed to crawl into the bush. I spent three days in the bush – Saturday, Sunday and Monday. When I crawled out to a road, I was lucky to see a car driven by a European which took me to City Hospital, Kano. I remained in that Hospital until the Red Cross made arrangements to take me to East by plane.”

NATHANIEL OKENWA was unconscious all the way from the North to the East. It was only recently that he could move his limbs and head. He was then able to give the following accounts:

“On the 29th September, I got ready to go to work but just as I was about to go out a friend came and asked me not to step out. When I asked him why he said that all the Ibos working in the main office had been killed. I therefore decided to seek a way of escape.

“I ran into the room of one Yoruba man and hid inside the ceiling of the building. I stayed there from 7 a.m. to about 7 p.m. They went into my room and looted all my belongings after which they came into the Yoruba man’s room and asked whether there was any Ibo man hiding there. They were told that no Ibo man was there. They left saying that they would come back again and that if they discovered that the Yorubas were hiding anybody they themselves would be in danger of losing their lives. They said they knew I had not gone to work and that I was hiding somewhere as they were sure I had not escaped. I heard all these things from my hiding-place in the ceiling.

“At about 7 p.m. I left the yard and sought a way out. I entered the bush and ran until I came out on tarred road. Just as I was looking to see if I could get a lorry to take me I saw some Hausas and they were the very people who were looking for me. I ran in the opposite direction but unfortunately I came upon a road block and many soldiers were there with their guns. The soldiers caught me and started beating me. Judging from the way they handled me I believed that I was a dead man. But they left me half dead. I called on them to come and take my life but they refused and said that they would leave me there to suffer and die in agony.

“I soon lost consciousness and did not know what happened afterwards. The next morning I called on them to come and kill me instead of leaving me in pain. They refused. I managed to push into the road and towards the path of an approaching lorry so that it would smash me. Little did I know that the lorry I had wanted to end my life under would be my saviour.

“This lorry had a European and a police constable in it. The policeman, a Northerner, was very annoyed. He turned around and asked the men round there: “Didn’t you kill this man?”. They said they had left me there to die. He asked them again why they did not kill me. The European requested that I should be saved. The police constable insisted that it was useless taking me to the hospital. However, with great reluctance he allowed the white man to carry me into the lorry.

“He asked whether I would like to be taken to Jos General Hospital. The white man said that if I was taken to Jos Hospital that would be my end. So I asked that I should be taken to the Christian Mission Hospital at Vom. This was on the 30th of September and I remained there until I was taken down to the East on the 4th of October.”

MR. GEORGEWILL I. DEDE of Okrika says:

“I have been in Kano since November 1954 as a Train Guard in the Nigerian Railway Corporation. Before the incident at Kano, we were promised by our officer (a Northerner called J. George) that we would be provided with wagons to carry our loads back to the East. We packed our goods to the station on Friday, 30th September. There were not only Railway workers but also other passengers who wanted to travel by rail because there was no other means of going to the East.

“Before our arrival many of them had spent about a week at the Railway Station waiting for the train. On Saturday, 1st October, the Hausa officer who had promised us wagons vanished. At about 7 p.m. armed Northern soldiers arrived at the Railway platform. They allowed their own Northern Railway workers to escape and then started shooting at the passengers. After killing the people at the station they entered the offices. I was in the Telegraph Office with many Easterners when they began to shoot at us. Their bullets could not penetrate where I was hiding flat on the ground and covered with bences and chairs. When they thought we were all dead they went out. Immediately I crawled into the Railway yard and lay flat covered with grasses. From there I could see soldiers packing the dead bodies into the Rest House at the station. I lay there till about 2 a.m. Then a heavy breeze came with rain and I had to leave the place. I trekked towards Mundudu Railway Station. On the way the Hausa natives of the area met me. They were carrying matchets, clubs and bows and arrows and they asked me to bring all the money I had in my pocket. I brought out 86 I had on me at that time.

“Then they first cut my left hand, almost severing it. Then cut my right shoulder. They began to inflict matchet wounds on me mercilessly, even cutting me on the nose. By now I was lying flat, bleeding helplessly. They then removed my wristwatch, shirts and singlet and the money in my back pocket which was 2.10.0. When they had left me, I managed to crawl into culvert nearby. I remained there from that time until the morning of Monday when I was able to crawl back towards Kano. I was picked up on the way by the Red Cross to the City Hospital, Kano, where I was treated for about a week. By that time the Red Cross had arranged the plane which took me and some of the wounded to Enugu.”

The above accounts were taken from THE BRITISH ARCHIVES OF FIRST HAND ACCOUNTS OF IGBO BIAFRANS WHO WERE TRAPPED IN NORTHERN NIGERIA DURING THE IGBO MASSACRES(1966-1970) BY THE HAUSA/FULANI!

"WE MUST KEEP ABREAST OF OUR PAST IN ORDER NOT TO LOOSE SIGHT OF OUR FUTURE, AND REPEAT ANY MISTAKES."

Source - from the booklet issued by Britain-Biafra Association in 1968.

* UKNC-O HISTORY LESSON

 

 

 

 

Biafran refugees 5 Aug 1968 (AP)
During the war, people became refuges, start to wander about, relocating from one place to another

 

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Biafran Children 3
Biafra Children being fed

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Head of Biafra - Ojukwu

Biafra Emblem
Biafran Emblem in Black and White

 

Biafran Flag
Biafran Flag

 

Gowon - the General
Lt. - Colonel Yakubu Gowon
Head of Federal Republic of Nigeria

Nigeria Flag
Nigerian Flag

Nigeria Amalgamation1
Details of Nigeria
Amalgamation

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Aburi Talks1
Aburi Meeting to Avert Nigeria Biafra War
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Dim Ojukwu33
Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu's Press
Conference On Aburi Meeting

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Awolowo and Ojukwu
Extract of Meeting Between Chief Awolowo team and Chief Ojukwu team at state House, Enugu on Saturday 6th May 1967
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Nzeogwu
Nzeogwu's Declaration of Martial Law -
January 15, 1966
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Biafran Flag
Biafra in Retrospect: Still Counting the Losses
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Ikemba Ojukwu
I am the Final Biafran Truth – Ojukwu
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Biafran Flag3
The Principles Of the Biafran Revolution Known As The Ahiara Declaration
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Biafra Badge
Biafra National Anthem
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Biafra Leader 3
Nigeria’s Post-Civil War Reconciliation
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Gowon and Ojukwu 2
NO VICTOR NO VANQUISH: 
A Trick by Nigeria to Subjugate Biafrans

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How the North planned Nigeria break-up
before Nigeria Biafra War

Sardauna